INTRODUCTION - THE CONSORTIUM
PowerCem Headquarters – Moerdijk, The Netherlands
PowerCem Technologies was established in 1996 with its head office in Moerdijk, The Netherlands. It specializes in the research and development of a range of products contributing to sustainable environmental applications in particular on cement-based construction- works in general. The developed products, patented world-wide, have a unique composition and make a significant difference to all applications where cement and regular binders are used, even in the most difficult situations.
PowerCem Technologies supplies their product-range to almost every continent. It has an active policy of selecting its distributors on the basis of reliability and familiarity with the particular field of operation. PowerCem- based products have been used for over a decade by both governmental bodies and industries associated with the road and water-management sectors.
BNM ENGINEERING PVT. LTD.
BNM Engineering Pvt. Ltd is a company floated under the laws of India, with the purpose of implementing the bringing in and implementing high-end expertise in Infrastructure, Civil Engineering,Roads and other related fields in India and there developing countries. BNM Engineering avails its pool of expertise and technologies from Western Europe,USA and various other countries which ave proven their credibility and might in engineering innovations.
BNM Engineering has a pool of engineering experts, consultants and companies whith specialized expertise in various specialized technologies in various fields. It makes its clients available such expertise and acts as a bridge to implement such technologies in various developing countries.
INTRODUCTION TO ROADCEM
PowerCem Technologies, The Netherlands, is a company that produces a range of products which are used as additives and improvers of Cement for different applications. One of the products is known as RoadCem and is a product primarily used in road construction. RoadCem is an additive and cement improver, used in soil and other material stabilization typically for road construction. It can also be used in all kinds of other soil stabilization works such as dike construction or landfill lining and similar applications. RoadCem and other PowerCem Technologies products have been used on demonstration and full scale projects in many countries on 4 continents.
RoadCem makes it possible to use cementitous binders on all suitable natural materials and even sludge and other waste materials and make a product that can be used in Road engineering. RoadCem modifies the chemical and mineral structure of the materials that it is used with.
OTHER POWERCEM PRODUCTS
PowerCem Technologies and DHBC are also marketing a set of sister products in India which are based on the same technology as RoadCem . The sister products are:
- ImmoCem Used for the immobilization of pollutants. Even the most contaminated sludge treated and make the treated material meet the requirements needed for a Category 1 building material.
- ConcreCem Used to improve concrete properties. The main improvement, compared to traditional concrete is higher pressure strength in less time and an improvement of the shrinkage properties of concrete.
- NucliCem Is a product from PowerCem Technologies that makes it possible to immobilize low level radioactive waste.
ROADCEM - THE TECHNOLOGY
1. TRADITIONAL ROAD CONSTRUCTION METHODS
Traditional road design and construction has proven to be very material and energy intensive. It demands also import and export of enormous quantities of virgin material in order to be completed successfully. This is especially true in situations where the load bearing capacity of base soils is low or when other geotechnical conditions along the route of the road are not suitable.
As a result there are multilayered designs and structures based on imported gravel and/or other acceptable material often exceeding 100 cm in thickness. The traditional designs typically consist of different layers such as the Surface course, Base course and Sub base course. These layers are all typically made of materials imported from other sites.
2. THE POWERCEM METHOD OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION
The PowerCem based Technology offers a high quality of roads with a shorter construction timeframe. The Technology provides cost-effective and durable solutions to both governmental and private companieswho are investing in the roads in India.
The PowerCem Technology is worldwide recognized as a sophisticated technology improving quality and saving substantial costs by using local aggregates and soil in comparison to traditional systems which requires often selected materials.
The technology is based on the addition of RoadCem to cement, in order to allow stabilization of any type of soil, into a strong, flexible cement-bound base course. The same technique of creating a crystalline cement matrix, applies for ConcreCem improved Concrete, which is used to make one of the proposed surface layers in this report: ARC (Acicular Reinforced Concrete).
The construction of the non-traditional roads is built up in layers containing one or more of the following items:
- RoadCem layer: The in-situ soil,mixed with RoadCem and cement
- Burning layer: Connecting layer between RoadCem stabilization and surface layer (not being an bitumen emulsion, but specific for the use in combination with an ARC).
- ARC: RoadCem (type CC) The ARC surface layer
– Description – The RoadCem Base Layer
A RoadCem stabilization is made out of the material that is available on site, homogeneously mixed with RoadCem and cement. In this case the soil on the site is reported to be a Sandy Clay / Silty Clayey Sand. Based on experience, the amount of cement, RoadCem is estimated.
Mixture composition can range have the following ranges depending on the soil properties:
- Cement: CEM I 42.5 N (OPC) 120 – 180 kg/m³
- RoadCem 1.6 – 2.4 kg/m³
More clayey soil require more RoadCem and Cement.It is possible to use 50% Fly Ash, replacing cement.
– Description of a Surface burning layer
On top of a RoadCem base course, a wearing course must be placed. This can e.g. be an ARC (Acicular Reinforced Concrete: a ConcreCem improved concrete top layer), but also an asphalt layer. It is very important that the top layer sticks very well with the RoadCem base course.
Before anARC surface layer (3) can be applied, the RoadCem foundation (1) has to be “burned” (“glued”) with the following RoadCem suspension:
- CEM II 42.5N 1000 kg/m³
- RoadCem 1 kg/m³
- Water 700 kg/m³
It is very important that the ARC sticks well to the RoadCem base course layer. This burning layer will provide the necessary cohesion.
Before application of the burning layer, the surface of the RoadCem layer should be cleaned well, and any loose material should be removed from it.
– Description of ARC
ARC (Acicular Reinforced Concrete) is a RoadCem modified Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) which is applied as surface layer without expansion joints. The material can be made in Plant, by using the following mix composition:
|Material||Mass [%]||Mass [kg/2t]|
|Crushed Rock fines||43,3%||865,1|
|CEM II 52.5N||8,1%||161,6|
|Water||2,75||55,0||W.c.f.: 0.34 1|
The ARC can best be applied with a slip form paver, an asphalt paving machine or –if necessary- by shovel (not recommended) and has to be compacted with a tandem compactor. It is important that the ARC will be processed within 2 hours after mixing at the concrete mixing plant. After compaction it is required to cure the surface with water by sprinkler installation or similar for the next 48 hours.
The material should comply to a specific sieve curve, which requires a considerable number of crushed rock fines. The resulting grain size distribution will be supplied and checked by the engineers of PCT.
3. THE SCIENCE OF ROADCEM – NANOSCIENCE OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION
The five major compounds of the hydration process of Cement still remain the most important hydration products but the minor products of hydration probably change. Furthermore, the rate at which important hydration reactions occur and the relative distribution of hydration products changes as a result of the addition of RoadCem. In addition, the crystallization of calcium hydroxide accordingly occurs at different rates and the reduction of heat generation from the hydration reactions occurs. There are more crystals formed during the reactions and the relevant crystalline matrix is much more extensive
When adding RoadCem, the amount of water trapped as free water is reduced and the crystals grow into the empty void space.
This makes the product less permeable to water and more resistant to all types of attack that are either water dependant or water influenced. The reduced porosity and increased crystalline structural matrix increases compressive, flexural and breaking strength of the product and change the relative ratio between these strengths.
In summary, RoadCem is a product that makes possible:
- Use of waste materials in road construction.
- Use of In-Situ materials for road construction independent of their quality.
- Reduction of the thickness of the pavement structure for the equivalent road performance.
- Avoidance of material import for road construction.
- Immobilization of pollutants in waste materials.
- Reduction of the waste stream management costs.
- Reduction of energy inputs needed for road construction and associated reduction of environmental and ecological footprints of road construction.
4. ADVANTAGES OF ROADCEM
- Stabilization of all types of soil RoadCem is a powerful soil stabilizer for all kinds of soil such as Clay, peat, sand and also the tediously infamous Black Cotton Soil.
- Low Maintenance and All Season Roads
- High Fatigue resistance will make the roads bear more load without wear and tear. RoadCem roads require minimal or no maintainence during the designed lifetime of the pavement. Reinforcement work is done only when the pavement approaches the end of its designed lifetime.
- High Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity will make the road resistant to damage caused by overloaded vehicles
- No Thermal Cracking – Roadcem makes the roads resistant to heat produced by friction and/or environmental heat thus making it highly suitable for environmentally hot climates.
- Due to the non conductivity of heat Roads can also bear extremely cold climates with very low temperatures.
- A Roadcem base aids to an effective Asphalt design increasing the life of asphalt layer.
- RoadCem makes the Roads impermeable to water thus making it highly suitable for areas with high rainfall and severe floods.
- RoadCem is a UNESCO recommended technology for Road Construction in Flood Affected area
- Increasing strength and create flexible cement bound materialsRoadCem enhances and increases the strength and flexibility of stabilized road layers and improves the overall performance of cement bounded materials used in road construction. Used in conjunction with cement it improves the quality of the cement needed and allows road construction even with materials previously considered inappropriate for this purpose.
- Improvement of Material Properties
- High Breaking Strain and Fatigue Resistence
- High Tensile Strength
Test date: Comp. Str. Blanco* Ind. Tensile Blanco* Comp. Str. 0.2%* Ind. Tensile0.2%* Comp. Str. 0.3%* Tensile 0.3%* 3 days 0.8 0.10 1.4 0.18 1.3 0.16 7 days 1.8 0.26 3.4 0.56 2.8 0.47 14 days 3.0 3.8 3.2 28 days 3.8 4.3 4.5
- No Thermal Cracking
- High Compressive Strength
- High Stiffness Modulus
Material Dynamic elasticity modulus (MPa and approx. CBR) Peat 10 (1) Clay 25-75 (2.5-7.5) Sand 75-150 (7.5-1.5) Asphalt 7.500 Furnace slag 1.000 (100) Sand-cement stabilization 3.500 (350) Sand-RoadCem-Cement 6.000 (600) ImmoCem + sludge 4.700 (470)
- Wider Load Spreading
- High Breaking Strain and Fatigue Resistence
- Environmentally safe and Creates safe construction materialsRoadCem is environmental friendly and fits in the Clinton Climate Initiative. This is confirmed and reported by Dutch accredited laboratories after investigating the leaching behavior of composite materials for a simulated period of 100 years. Composite materials stabilized/solidified using RoadCem treated materials have successfully passed the Dutch Environmental Tests and have been certified to be used as Category One Building Materials according to the Dutch Building Materials Decree.
- Material Savings and Cost Reductions
- With RoadCem the road can be built with Soil available on site thus reducing on the cost to transport soil from another location.
- Any type of water can be used to build roads with RoadCem such as sludge, sea water, fresh water, etc. thus eliminating the need to transport water from far away sites.
- RoadCem also reduces the amount of other material such as cement and other granular material thus saving on building costs.
- RoadCem also saves costs on maintenance cycle of the Roads due to low maintenance
- Faster Construction of Roads
- Roads can be built with greater speed than traditional methods due to the above factors.
- Roads can be made functional within 24hours of construction for all kinds of heavy traffic and 8 hours for light traffic like cars, LMVs
RoadCem is a certified technology in India by the Indian Road Congress and Central Road Research Institute.
Apart from India it is certified in the following nations :
- Russian Federation
- South Africa
- European Union
- United Kingdom
- Abu- Dhabi
All Certifications are attached as a part of this information package.